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Category: galaxy formation and evolution (Page 3 of 3)

Naiman et al. (2018)

First results from the IllustrisTNG simulations: a tale of two elements – chemical evolution of magnesium and europium

by
Naiman, Jill P.; Pillepich, Annalisa; Springel, Volker; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Nelson, Dylan; Marinacci, Federico; Hernquist, Lars; Weinberger, Rainer; Genel, Shy

abstract
The distribution of elements in galaxies provides a wealth of information about their production sites and their subsequent mixing into the interstellar medium. Here we investigate the elemental distributions of stars in the IllustrisTNG simulations. We analyse the abundance ratios of magnesium and europium in Milky Way-like galaxies from the TNG100 simulation (stellar masses log (M/M) ̃ 9.7-11.2). Comparison of observed magnesium and europium for individual stars in the Milky Way with the stellar abundances in our more than 850 Milky Way-like galaxies provides stringent constraints on our chemical evolutionary methods. Here, we use the magnesium-to-iron ratio as a proxy for the effects of our SNII (core-collapse supernovae) and SNIa (Type Ia supernovae) metal return prescription and as a comparison to a variety of galactic observations. The europium-to-iron ratio tracks the rare ejecta from neutron star-neutron star mergers, the assumed primary site of europium production in our models, and is a sensitive probe of the effects of metal diffusion within the gas in our simulations. We find that europium abundances in Milky Way-like galaxies show no correlation with assembly history, present-day galactic properties, and average galactic stellar population age. We reproduce the europium-to-iron spread at low metallicities observed in the Milky Way, and find it is sensitive to gas properties during redshifts z ≈ 2-4. We show that while the overall normalization of [Eu/Fe] is susceptible to resolution and post-processing assumptions, the relatively large spread of [Eu/Fe] at low [Fe/H] when compared to that at high [Fe/H] is quite robust.

published in
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 477, Issue 1, p.1206-1224, June 2018

links to paper
[ADS][arXiv]

Nelson et al. (2018)

The abundance, distribution, and physical nature of highly ionized oxygen O VI, O VII, and O VIII in IllustrisTNG

by
Nelson, Dylan; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Pillepich, Annalisa; Genel, Shy; Springel, Volker; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Hernquist, Lars; Weinberger, Rainer; Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Marinacci, Federico

abstract
We explore the abundance, spatial distribution, and physical properties of the O VI, O VII, and O VIII ions of oxygen in circumgalactic and intergalactic media (the CGM, IGM, and WHIM). We use the TNG100 and TNG300 large volume cosmological magnetohydrodynamical simulations. Modelling the ionization states of simulated oxygen, we find good agreement with observations of the low-redshift O VI column density distribution function (CDDF), and present its evolution for all three ions from z = 0 to z = 4. Producing mock quasar absorption line spectral surveys, we show that the IllustrisTNG simulations are fully consistent with constraints on the O VI content of the CGM from COS-haloes and other low-redshift observations, producing columns as high as observed. We measure the total amount of mass and average column densities of each ion using hundreds of thousands of simulated galaxies spanning 10^{11} < {M}_halo/ M<1015 corresponding to 109 < M/ M<1012 in stellar mass. Stacked radial profiles of O VI are computed in 3D number density and 2D projected column density, decomposing into 1-halo and 2-halo terms. Relating halo O VI to properties of the central galaxy, we find a correlation between the (g – r) colour of a galaxy and the total amount of O VI in its CGM. In comparison to the COS-Haloes finding, this leads to a dichotomy of columns around star-forming versus passive galaxies at fixed stellar (or halo) mass. We demonstrate that this correlation is a direct result of black hole feedback associated with quenching and represents a causal consequence of galactic-scale baryonic feedback impacting the physical state of the circumgalactic medium.

published in
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 477, Issue 1, p.450-479, June 2018

links to paper
[ADS][arXiv]

Torrey et al. (2018)

Similar star formation rate and metallicity variability time-scales drive the fundamental metallicity relation

by
Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars; McKinnon, Ryan; Marinacci, Federico; Simcoe, Robert A.; Springel, Volker; Pillepich, Annalisa; Naiman, Jill; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Weinberger, Rainer; Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy

abstract
The fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) is a postulated correlation between galaxy stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), and gas-phase metallicity. At its core, this relation posits that offsets from the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) at a fixed stellar mass are correlated with galactic SFR. In this Letter, we use hydrodynamical simulations to quantify the time-scales over which populations of galaxies oscillate about the average SFR and metallicity values at fixed stellar mass. We find that Illustris and IllustrisTNG predict that galaxy offsets from the star formation main sequence and MZR oscillate over similar time-scales, are often anticorrelated in their evolution, evolve with the halo dynamical time, and produce a pronounced FMR. Our models indicate that galaxies oscillate about equilibrium SFR and metallicity values – set by the galaxy’s stellar mass – and that SFR and metallicity offsets evolve in an anticorrelated fashion. This anticorrelated variability of the metallicity and SFR offsets drives the existence of the FMR in our models. In contrast to Illustris and IllustrisTNG, we speculate that the SFR and metallicity evolution tracks may become decoupled in galaxy formation models dominated by feedback-driven globally bursty SFR histories, which could weaken the FMR residual correlation strength. This opens the possibility of discriminating between bursty and non-bursty feedback models based on the strength and persistence of the FMR – especially at high redshift.

published in
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Volume 477, Issue 1, p.L16-L20, June 2018

links to paper
[ADS][arXiv]

Nelson et al. (2018)

First results from the IllustrisTNG simulations: the galaxy colour bimodality

by
Nelson, Dylan; Pillepich, Annalisa; Springel, Volker; Weinberger, Rainer; Hernquist, Lars; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Genel, Shy; Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Marinacci, Federico; Naiman, Jill

abstract
We introduce the first two simulations of the IllustrisTNG project, a next generation of cosmological magnetohydrodynamical simulations, focusing on the optical colours of galaxies. We explore TNG100, a rerun of the original Illustris box, and TNG300, which includes 2 × 25003 resolution elements in a volume 20 times larger. Here, we present first results on the galaxy colour bimodality at low redshift. Accounting for the attenuation of stellar light by dust, we compare the simulated (g – r) colours of 109 < M/M < 1012.5 galaxies to the observed distribution from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find a striking improvement with respect to the original Illustris simulation, as well as excellent quantitative agreement with the observations, with a sharp transition in median colour from blue to red at a characteristic M ̃ 1010.5 M. Investigating the build-up of the colour-mass plane and the formation of the red sequence, we demonstrate that the primary driver of galaxy colour transition is supermassive black hole feedback in its low accretion state. Across the entire population the median colour transition time-scale ∆tgreen is ̃1.6 Gyr, a value which drops for increasingly massive galaxies. We find signatures of the physical process of quenching: at fixed stellar mass, redder galaxies have lower star formation rates, gas fractions, and gas metallicities; their stellar populations are also older and their large-scale interstellar magnetic fields weaker than in bluer galaxies. Finally, we measure the amount of stellar mass growth on the red sequence. Galaxies with M > 1011 Mwhich redden at z < 1 accumulate on average ̃25 per cent of their final z = 0 mass post-reddening; at the same time, ̃18 per cent of such massive galaxies acquire half or more of their final stellar mass while on the red sequence.

published in
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 475, Issue 1, p.624-647, March 2018

links to paper
[ADS][arXiv]

Genel et al. (2018)

The size evolution of star-forming and quenched galaxies in the IllustrisTNG simulation

by
Genel, Shy; Nelson, Dylan; Pillepich, Annalisa; Springel, Volker; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Weinberger, Rainer; Hernquist, Lars; Naiman, Jill; Vogelsberger, Mark; Marinacci, Federico; Torrey, Paul

abstract
We analyse scaling relations and evolution histories of galaxy sizes in TNG100, part of the IllustrisTNG simulation suite. Observational qualitative trends of size with stellar mass, star formation rate and redshift are reproduced, and a quantitative comparison of projected r band sizes at 0 ≲ z ≲ 2 shows agreement to much better than 0.25 dex. We follow populations of z = 0 galaxies with a range of masses backwards in time along their main progenitor branches, distinguishing between main-sequence and quenched galaxies. Our main findings are as follows. (i) At M*, z = 0 ≳ 109.5 M, the evolution of the median main progenitor differs, with quenched galaxies hardly growing in median size before quenching, whereas main-sequence galaxies grow their median size continuously, thus opening a gap from the progenitors of quenched galaxies. This is partly because the main-sequence high-redshift progenitors of quenched z = 0 galaxies are drawn from the lower end of the size distribution of the overall population of main-sequence high-redshift galaxies. (ii) Quenched galaxies with M*, z = 0 ≳ 109.5 M experience a steep size growth on the size-mass plane after their quenching time, but with the exception of galaxies with M*, z = 0 ≳ 1011 M, the size growth after quenching is small in absolute terms, such that most of the size (and mass) growth of quenched galaxies (and its variation among them) occurs while they are still on the main sequence. After they become quenched, the size growth rate of quenched galaxies as a function of time, as opposed to versus mass, is similar to that of main-sequence galaxies. Hence, the size gap is retained down to z = 0.

published in
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 474, Issue 3, p.3976-3996, March 2018

links to paper
[ADS][arXiv]

Pillepich et al. (2018)

First results from the IllustrisTNG simulations: the stellar mass content of groups and clusters of galaxies

by
Pillepich, Annalisa; Nelson, Dylan; Hernquist, Lars; Springel, Volker; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Torrey, Paul; Weinberger, Rainer; Genel, Shy; Naiman, Jill P.; Marinacci, Federico; Vogelsberger, Mark

abstract
The IllustrisTNG project is a new suite of cosmological magnetohydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation performed with the AREPO code and updated models for feedback physics. Here, we introduce the first two simulations of the series, TNG100 and TNG300, and quantify the stellar mass content of about 4000 massive galaxy groups and clusters (1013 ≤ M200c/M ≤ 1015) at recent times (z ≤ 1). The richest clusters have half of their total stellar mass bound to satellite galaxies, with the other half being associated with the central galaxy and the diffuse intracluster light. Haloes more massive than about 5 × 1014 M have more diffuse stellar mass outside 100 kpc than within 100 kpc, with power-law slopes of the radial mass density distribution as shallow as the dark matter’s ( – 3.5 ≲ α3D ≲ -3). Total halo mass is a very good predictor of stellar mass, and vice versa: at z = 0, the 3D stellar mass measured within 30 kpc scales as ∝(M500c)0.49 with a ̃0.12 dex scatter. This is possibly too steep in comparison to the available observational constraints, even though the abundance of The Next Generation less-massive galaxies ( ≲ 1011 M in stars) is in good agreement with the measured galaxy stellar mass functions at recent epochs. The 3D sizes of massive galaxies fall too on a tight (̃0.16 dex scatter) power-law relation with halo mass, with r^stars_0.5 ∝ (M_200c)^{0.53}. Even more fundamentally, halo mass alone is a good predictor for the whole stellar mass profiles beyond the inner few kiloparsecs, and we show how on average these can be precisely recovered given a single-mass measurement of the galaxy or its halo.

published in
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 475, Issue 1, p.648-675, March 2018

links to paper
[ADS][arXiv]

Pillepich et al. (2018)

Simulating galaxy formation with the IllustrisTNG model

by
Pillepich, Annalisa; Springel, Volker; Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy; Naiman, Jill; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Hernquist, Lars; Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Weinberger, Rainer; Marinacci, Federico

abstract
We introduce an updated physical model to simulate the formation and evolution of galaxies in cosmological, large-scale gravity+magnetohydrodynamical simulations with the moving mesh code AREPO. The overall framework builds upon the successes of the Illustris galaxy formation model, and includes prescriptions for star formation, stellar evolution, chemical enrichment, primordial and metal-line cooling of the gas, stellar feedback with galactic outflows, and black hole formation, growth and multimode feedback. In this paper, we give a comprehensive description of the physical and numerical advances that form the core of the IllustrisTNG (The Next Generation) framework. We focus on the revised implementation of the galactic winds, of which we modify the directionality, velocity, thermal content and energy scalings, and explore its effects on the galaxy population. As described in earlier works, the model also includes a new black-hole-driven kinetic feedback at low accretion rates, magnetohydrodynamics and improvements to the numerical scheme. Using a suite of (25 Mpc h-1)3 cosmological boxes, we assess the outcome of the new model at our fiducial resolution. The presence of a self-consistently amplified magnetic field is shown to have an important impact on the stellar content of 1012 M haloes and above. Finally, we demonstrate that the new galactic winds promise to solve key problems identified in Illustris in matching observational constraints and affecting the stellar content and sizes of the low-mass end of the galaxy population.

published in
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 473, Issue 3, p.4077-4106, January 2018

links to paper
[ADS][arXiv]

Weinberger et al. (2017)

Simulating galaxy formation with black hole driven thermal and kinetic feedback

by
Weinberger, Rainer; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars; Pillepich, Annalisa; Marinacci, Federico; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy; Vogelsberger, Mark; Naiman, Jill; Torrey, Paul

abstract
The inefficiency of star formation in massive elliptical galaxies is widely believed to be caused by the interactions of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) with the surrounding gas. Achieving a sufficiently rapid reddening of moderately massive galaxies without expelling too many baryons has however proven difficult for hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation, prompting us to explore a new model for the accretion and feedback effects of supermassive black holes. For high-accretion rates relative to the Eddington limit, we assume that a fraction of the accreted rest mass energy heats the surrounding gas thermally, similar to the ‘quasar mode’ in previous work. For low-accretion rates, we invoke a new, pure kinetic feedback model that imparts momentum to the surrounding gas in a stochastic manner. These two modes of feedback are motivated both by theoretical conjectures for the existence of different types of accretion flows as well as recent observational evidence for the importance of kinetic AGN winds in quenching galaxies. We find that a large fraction of the injected kinetic energy in this mode thermalizes via shocks in the surrounding gas, thereby providing a distributed heating channel. In cosmological simulations, the resulting model produces red, non-star-forming massive elliptical galaxies, and achieves realistic gas fractions, black hole growth histories and thermodynamic profiles in large haloes.

published in
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 465, Issue 3, p.3291-3308, March 2017

links to paper
[ADS][arXiv]

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